Refraction and Retinoscopy: How to Pass the Refraction Certificate

In order to become an ophthalmologist it is necessary to learn the skill of refraction
and retinoscopy which requires a great deal of skill and practice.
This full-colour, comprehensive revision guide has been specifically tailored for
candidates of the mandatory Refraction Certificate Examination assessed by the
Royal College of Ophthalmologists.

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The Ophthalmic Assistant: A Text for Allied and Associated Ophthalmic Personnel


Excel in your clinical responsibilities with The Ophthalmic Assistant. Whether you work in an ophthalmology, optometry, or opticianry setting, this best-selling reference delivers expert practical, up-to-date guidance on ocular diseases, surgical procedures, medications, and equipment as well as paramedical procedures and office management – providing all the knowledge and skills you need to be a valuable asset to your team. A real “how-to” textbook.
Consult this full-color visual guide for identification of ophthalmic disorders, explanations of difficult concepts, and depictions of the newest equipment used in ophthalmology and optometry – with over 1,000 illustrations.
Refer to the practical appendices for quick-reference information on hospital/practice forms for more efficient patient record keeping, conversion tables, numerous language translations, ocular emergencies, pharmaceuticals, and more.
Update your practical knowledge of ophthalmic tests and procedures.
Confidently prepare for certification or recertification exams with comprehensive and practical information on the exam process for ophthalmic and optometric assistants. Optimize your results with OCT imaging and other innovative technologies used in today’s ophthalmic offices, clinics, and hospitals.
Stay up to date with new drugs being used to treat a diverse range of eye diseases and disorders.
Learn how to assist the newest refractive cataract surgery procedures.
Update your knowledge of CPR procedures.
Access the fully searchable contents online, plus a downloadable image gallery, at
Practical guidance to help you tackle the ophthalmic challenges and cases you face everyday

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Low Vision Rehabilitation: A Practical Guide for Occupational Therapists

Mitchell Scheiman OD (Author), Maxine Scheiman (Author), Stephen G. Whittaker OTR (Author)

Low vision rehabilitation is rapidly growing as a specialty practice for occupational therapists. This growth requires practical, evidence-based information on the evaluation and treatment of the effects of low vision on occupational performance. Responding to this need, Low Vision Rehabilitation: A Practical Guide for Occupational Therapists blends standards of practice that have been developed over 50 years by low vision therapists and optometrists, with the latest scientific research and the unique perspective of occupational therapists.

Low Vision Rehabilitation presents an emerging model in which occupational therapists practice as part of a team of vision rehabilitation professionals serving adults with low vision. Occupational therapists offer a unique contribution to the vision rehabilitation team, with a focus on meaningful occupational goals, the incorporation of occupation into therapy, and the orchestration of environmental, social, and non-visual personal factors into a treatment plan. Mitchell Scheiman, Maxine Scheiman, and Stephen Whittaker have developed a practical and straightforward text outlining an evaluation approach to interventions that focus on recovering occupational performance in adults.

Special features
• Incorporates concepts from the AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process
• Provides most of the core knowledge required for the ACVREP low vision certification examination and AOTA specialty certification in low vision
• Includes an occupational therapy vision rehabilitation evaluation consisting of four components: occupational profile/case history, evaluation of visual factors, environmental evaluation, evaluation of occupational performance
• Emphasizes intervention and low vision rehabilitation treatment including modification of the environment, use of non-optical assistive devices, use of optical devices, and use of computer technology
• Provides valuable information on how to start an independent practice in low vision rehabilitation
• Includes chapters on diabetic management and electronic assistive technology
• Includes access to a companion website with printable forms and additional resources with text purchase

Written by authors who are optometrists, occupational therapists, researchers, and certified low vision therapists (CLVT), Low Vision Rehabilitation employs an interdisciplinary perspective that is unique, practical, and credible.

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The Fine Art of Prescribing Glasses Without Making a Spectacle of Yourself

The Fine Art of Prescribing Glasses Without Making a Spectacle of Yourself
Benjamin Milder (Author), Melvin L. Rubin (Author)


Book Description
Publication Date: April 30, 2004 | ISBN-10: 0937404667 | ISBN-13: 978-0937404669 | Edition: 3
Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO. Completely updated, this edition features many new clinical cases, elaborations on the refractive implications of modern refractive surgery, and descriptions of some of the new plastics for contact and spectacle lenses.

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Refraction, Dispensing Optics & Ophthalmic Procedure

     Ghai Ashwani Kumar


The contents of the book have been designed taking into account the syllabus laid down by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), Vinayak Mission University (VMU), Allahabad Agricultural Institute, and Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (IPH&H), and other prestigious institutes, for students of optometry. However, it will be of equal use to students of MBBS course and ophthalmology residents.

Topic of Content


1. Light

2. Prism

3. Refraction of Light

4. Reflection of Light

5. Visual Angles and Axes of Eye

6. Refractive Errors

7. Accommodation and Convergence

8. Retinoscopy and Transposition

9. Ophthalmic Lenses

10. Spectacle Frames

11. Headache After Using Spectacles—How to Manage?

12. phthalmic Procedures and Instruments

13. asers in Ophthalmology

14. ontact Lens Practice


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Textbook of Visual Science and Clinical Optometry

Bhattacharya (Author)


Book Description
Publication Date: August 1, 2009
SECTION 1: ANATOMY 1. ANATOMY OF THE EYEBALL * Cornea * Sclera * Limbus * Anterior Chamber * Posterior Chamber * Uveal Tract vii. Retina * Optic Nerve * Lens * Vitreous Humour * Blood Supply of Eyeball 2. ANATOMY OF APPENDAGES OF THE EYEBALL * Conjunctiva * Eyelids * Lacrimal Apparatus * Muscles of the Eye * Levator Palpebrae Superioris 3. ANATOMY OF THE ORBIT * Roof * Medial Wall * Floor * Lateral Wall * Orbital Contents * Superior Orbital Fissure (Sphenoidal) * Interior Orbital Fissure (Sphenomaxillary) * Optic Foramen (Optic Canal) * Surgical Anatomical Spaces within the Orbit SECTION 2: PHYSIOLOGY AND NEUROLOGY OF VISION 4. PHYSIOLOGY OF THE OCULAR STRUCTURES * Aqueous Humour * Vitreous Humour * Cornea * Lens * Tears 5. PHYSIOLOGY OF VISION * Photochemical Changes * Electrical Changes * Visual Perceptions (or Sensations) * Colour Sense 6. THE NEUROLOGY OF VISION * Visual Pathway * Pupillary Pathway * Pupillary Reflexes * Pupillary Reaction Disorders SECTION 3: LIGHT AND OPTICAL PRINCIPLES 7. LIGHT AND HUMAN EYE: BASIC OPTICAL PRINCIPLES * Light and Electromagnetic Spectrum * Basic Optical Principles of Human Eye * Axes and Angles of the Eye * Optical Aberrations of the Eye * Purkinje Images * Retinal Image 8. ACCOMMODATION AND ITS ANOMALIES * Accommodation * Insufficiency of Accommodation * Paralysis of Accommodation * Spasm of Accommodation SECTION 4: REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND CORRECTION 9. ERRORS OF REFRACTION * Hypermetropia * Myopia * Astigmatism * Anisometropia * Aphakiavi. Pseudophakia * Presbyopia 10. ESTIMATION AND CORRECTION OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS * Retinoscopy * Autorefractometry * Photorefraction * Subjective Refraction * Prescription for Spectacles SECTION 5: PRACTICAL OPHTHALMICS AND CLINICAL OPTOMETRY 11. MATERIALSOPHTHALMIC LENS AND SPECTACLE FRAME * Ophthalmic Lens Materials * Spectacle Frame Materials 12. OPHTHALMIC LENSES * Spherical Lenses * Cylindrical Lenses * Unit of Lens Power * Special Types of Lenses * Transposition * Neutralisation (Determination of Power of a Lens) 13. COATINGS AND TINTS OF LENSES *Antireflection Coating (AR Coating) * Tints * Photochromism * Hard Coating/Scratch Resistant Coating * Ultraviolet Inhibitors * Water Resistant/Hydrophobic Coating * Polaroid Lenses * Lens Care and Cleaning 14. FRAMES AND LENSES: DIMENSIONS, MEASUREMENTS AND STYLES * Spectacle Frame Dimensions * Parts of a Frame * Common Terminologies Associated with Frame * Shapes of Frames * Common Types of Frames * Special Types of Spectacle Frames * InformationsAvailable from the Frame * Lens Styles ix. Optical Centre of Lens * Pupillary (or Interpupillary) Distance * Vertex Distance 15. CONTACT LENS * Indications * Advantages Over Spectacles * Optics of Contact Lenses * Scleral Contact Lens * Semiscleral (or Soft or Hydrogel) Contact Lens * Corneal (or Rigid) Contact Lens * Fitting Procedures * Contact Lens Related Informations and Terminologies * Assessment of Soft Contact Lens Fitting * Assessment of Rigid Contact Lens Fitting * Determination of Contact Lens Power * Complications of Contact Lens Wear SECTION 6: SPECIAL CHAPTERS 16. OPHTHALMIC INSTRUMENTATION * Slit-lamp Biomicroscope * Tonometry * Gonioscopy * Indirect Biomicroscopy * Lens Measure (or Geneva Lens Measure) * Keratometer (or Ophthalmometer) vii. Lensometer (or Focimeter) * Direct Ophthalmoscope 17. LOW VISION AND LOW VISUAL AID * Clinical Assessment of a Patient with Low Vision * Management of Patients with Low Vision * Working Principle of Low Visual Aids * Low Visual Devices 18. PAEDIATRIC EYE EXAMINATION * History Taking * Ophthalmic Examination Proper * Clinical Examination of the Eye Proper * MilestonesNormal Visual Maturation and Reflexes * Normal Visual Acuity Maturation (Age-related)

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Eye Emergencies: the Practitioner’s Guide

Dorothy Field (Author)

Book Description

Excellent resource for professionals, whose work involves dealing with an acute ophthalmic presentation. The term ‘practitioner’ includes doctors, ophthalmic nurses, emergency care practitioners, nurse practitioners, nurses in accident and emergency departments and ‘walk in’ centres and first aid workers in remote locations such as oil rigs or working in the armed services. Readers will approach this text with differing levels of confidence, skills and knowledge. The book will help you develop greater competence in ophthalmic emergency practice

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Ophthalmic Lenses

Ophthalmic Lenses
Bhootra (Author)

Product Description
Dispensing opticians, eye care professionals and the students of optometry are looking for more practical approach to ophthalmic lenses; how they are dispensed and fitted, and what are their applications. With the introduction of this book, probably their search would be over. Days of selling ophthalmic lenses without knowledge are virtually over. Today with so much technology associated behind them, selling approach has to be replaced by dispensing approach. Newer technologies have already come and many more will come. There is a huge necessity of comprehensive information in this field. This book presents information on most of the varieties of ophthalmic lenses available today in the optical market. It will provide you information about how these lenses are made and dispensed to the ultimate user. Detailed information is given in very lucrative language, allowing you to choose the right lens for the people involved in different occupations. Ajay Kumar Bhootra born and brought up in Kolkata, is associated with Himalaya Optical Group, India. The author has a practical experience of more than two decades in ophthalmic lens dispensing and during his work, he has tackled many typical cases with respect to dispensing suitable glasses. He is also one of the pioneers in establishing the Sportvision Optometry in India. Besides this, he has the following books after his name: Opticians Guide, Low Vision Aids Practice, Elite Sport and Vision. 1. Basic Optical Principle 2. Ophthalmic Lens Material and Design 3. Spherical Lenses 4. Astigmatic Lenses 5. Prisms 6. Lens Aberrations 7. Tinted Lens 8. Anti-reflection Coated Lens 9. Aspheric Lenses 10. Bifocal Lenses 11. Progressive Addition Lenses 12. Safety Lenses 13. Surface Treatments 14. Sports Lenses 15. New Development in Spectacle Lenses

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Essentials for Ophthalmic Lens Finishing, Second Edition

Essentials for Ophthalmic Lens Finishing, Second Edition
Clifford W. Brooks OD (Author)

Product Description
Both opticians and optometrists are trained to grind and polish lenses and then to take the surfaced lens and finish it by centering it optically and grinding the edges so that the lens fits in the shape of the chosen frame. Thoroughly revised and updated with seven new chapters to cover changes in the industry, this 2nd edition provides a step-by-step understanding of lens finishing for the optometrist or optician.

Content has been completely updated, reorganized and expanded to include the most recent industry changes.
Updated photos illustrate the most current types of lenses and enhance comprehension of lens finishing.
Seven new chapters cover rimless and semi rimless frames; environmental and safety concerns; lens insertion and standard alignment; nylon cord and other groove mountings; lens tinting and engraving; progressive addition lenses; and lens impact and resistance testing.
An appendix of specific British Standards allows the book to easily travel to the UK and other countries that fashion their dispensing programs after the UK model.
The Lens Centration Skills Series provides exercises to practice lens finishing and reinforce material from the text.

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Binocular vision & orthoptics

Binocular vision & orthoptics

Carole Bowden, Simmons, Norris, Joanne Masters, Noble, Cunliffe, Richard R. Suminski, Jack J. Kanski, Anne Bolton, Ettinger, R. Muller, Roger, Devinksy

(Optician) College of Optometrists, London, UK. Contains articles originally printed in Optician, 1998-1999. For students, residents, opticians, and optometrists. Illustrated in full color and concentrates on the investigation and management of commonly encountered binocular vision anomalies.

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Vaughan & Asbury’s General Ophthalmology

Vaughan & Asbury’s General Ophthalmology

By Paul Riordan-Eva, John P. Whitcher, Taylor Asbury


Book Description:

This internationally popular text provides a practical, clinically-focused introduction to ophthalmology suitable for anyone looking for a quick-reference uupdate on state-of-the-art diagnosis and treatment of all major diseases of the eye. The new edition includes coverage of leading-edge topics including treatment of corneal disease by limbal reconstruction and amniotic membrane grafting, exudative macular degeneration, the use of intraocular steroid inections to treat a variety of retinal diseases, and use of immunomodulatory drugs for inflammatory eye disease



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The Ophthalmic Assistant: A Text for Allied and Associated Ophthalmic Personnel

The Ophthalmic Assistant: A Text for Allied and Associated Ophthalmic Personnel
By Harold A. Stein, Raymond M. Stein
 Product Description:

Simply written and well illustrated, this New Edition provides all the practical information ophthalmic and optometric assistants and technicians need to complete their day-to-day tasks, including paramedical training, ophthalmic technology, and efficient ophthalmic office management. It also serves as a useful guide for ophthalmic practice, featuring up-to-date coverage of ophthalmic diseases, surgical procedures, the latest medications, and the newest contact lenses. Readers will also find detailed information on the latest equipment used in practice and the skills required to understand the use of each piece in the clinical setting.

  • Features useful appendices that provide quick reference to hospital/practice forms for learning efficient patient record keeping, conversion tables, numerous language translations, ocular emergencies, pharmaceuticals, and more.
  • Includes an easy-to-access glossary of ophthalmic terminology used in practice.
  • Presents chapter outlines and self-assessment questions.
  • Features the latest advances in cataract, refractive, and strabismus eye surgery, as well as the latest pharmacologic agents.
  • Discusses the hottest topics in the field, such as phacoemulsification, MRI, and pediatric ophthalmology.
  • Includes new chapters on wavefront and custom ablation · topography · computerized COT · optical dispensing · ethics and confidentiality · and ophthalmic assisting for international medical personnel.
  • Presents an expanded section on ophthalmic terminology that includes more optometric entries, as well as and expanded translations section featuring Chinese, Japanese, French, German, Spanish, and Portuguese.
  • Offers more comprehensive and practical information on the certification/recertification process for ophthalmic and optometric assistants.
  • Uses new full-color images throughout to provide a better visual guide to identifying ophthalmic disorders, explaining difficult concepts-including surgical techniques-and showing the newest equipment used in ophthalmology and optometry.
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Clinical Medicine in Optometric Practice (Second Edition)

By Bruce Muchnick OD
Product Description:

This updated new edition is a practical guide to the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of systemic disorders as they relate to primary eye care. It incorporates a multidisciplinary approach, from the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, to testing and diagnosis methods, to medical and surgical management. Clinical Medicine in Optometric Practice, 2nd Edition provides the reader with the information needed to make informed decisions about patient management, such as identifying symptoms and their related disorders, and knowing when to refer patients to a medical specialist.

  • Shows how the wide range of medical conditions and their therapeutic strategies impact the delivery of eye care.
  • Familiarizes the reader with the conditions that are encountered in practice, those that may present with ocular manifestations, and those that have significant importance to medicine in general.
  • Organized in a practical, easily accessible format.
  • Uses case presentations to demonstrate clinical test interpretation, differential diagnosis, treatment, and the development of a prognosis.
  • Reflects the most current technologies in examination and testing.
  • Features all-new illustrations in full color, illustrating systemic disorders, the physical exam, videotaping, dermatological conditions, and much more.
  • Includes a new chapter on vascular disease, especially important since optometrists are sometimes the first to notice these types of changes.
  • Contains new information on cardiovascular disease and carotid disease, including the effects that stroke may have on the patient.
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The Professional Qualifying Examinations: A Survival Guide for Optometrists

Product Description:
This book is a guide for undergraduate students applying for a pre-registration position and for pre-registration optometrists taking the College of Optometrists (CO) Part II Professional Qualifying Examination (PQE’s). Brimming with sound advice and lots of useful hints and tips, it covers everything from applying for a pre-registration position, the pre-reg year diary, exams, venues, accommodation and achieving examination success through to over 500 past examination questions in the various PQE topics from binocular vision to contact lenses.
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Vaughan & Asbury’s General Ophthalmology

Vaughan & Asbury’s General Ophthalmology
Book Description
The world’s most popular ophthalmology text! Thoroughly updated, this text covers the state-of-the-art diagnosis and treatment of all major diseases and disorders of the eye in adults and children. Generously illustrated with high quality clinical photographs and excellent drawings. Includes high-tech diagnostic and therapeutic information as well as a comprehensive glossary and handy, easy-to-use tables.

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